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A few enhancements are added in the Incubator modules as a way of putting non-final APIs, tools and APIs to the developers’ disposal which allows users to provide feedback, which ultimately enhances the performance functionality. The 17 JEPs made available with Java 16 have been grouped into six types:

1. New Language Features

JEP 394 Pattern Matching to determine the case of

It was first released as a preview feature within Java 14 and again in Java 15, Pattern Matching improves its use in the Java programming language by allowing patterns matching in the instance of operator.

Pattern matching allows the common programs’ logic that is the conditional extraction of objects and components to be expressed in a more concise manner and more safely. JAVA courses with certificates

JEP 395 Records

The feature was initially implemented as preview functionality In Java 14 and again in Java 15, Records provide an efficient syntax to declare classes that are transparent holders of shallowly immutable data. This is likely to significantly reduce the amount of text in these classes , and will improve accessibility and readability of the code.

2. JVM Improvements

JEP 376 ZGC Concurrent Thread Processing

JEP 376 shifts ZGC thread stack processing from safepoints to asynchronous phase, which allows submillisecond interruptions within GC safepoints even when heaps are large. The removal of the primary source of latency within ZGC garbage collector will greatly improve the performance of applications. ZGC garbage collection will dramatically increase the efficiency and performance of the applications that will be included in this and future releases.JEP 387 Elastic Metaspace

This feature allows you to return unneeded HotSpot VM metadata class (i.e. metaspace) memory back to the operating system faster and reduces the footprint of metaspace. Applications that have heavy load-on and unloading activities can add lots of unoccupied space.

3. New Tools and Libraries

JEP 380 Unix-Domain Socket Channels

Unix-domain sockets have been the norm on all Unix platforms they are now included by Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019. This feature adds Unix domain (AF_UNIX) socket support for the socket channel as well as server-socket channel APIs within the java.nio.channels package. It extends the channel mechanism to allow socket channels with Unix domains as well as socket channels for servers. The sockets of Unix domain are used to support inter-process communications (IPC) in the same server.

They’re similar to TCP/IP sockets, in many respects but they are identified via filesystem path names, instead of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and port numbers. In terms of local inter-process communication Unix-domain sockets are more secure and efficient than loopback connections made with TCP/IP.

JEP 392 Packaging Tool

4. Futureproofing Your Work

JEP 390 Warning for Value-Based Classes

This feature designates the primitive wrapper classes (java.lang.Integer, java.lang.Double, etc) as value-based (similar to java.util.Optional and java.time.LocalDateTime) and add forRemoval to their constructors, which are deprecated since JDK 9, prompting new warnings. This feature warns users about inappropriate attempts to sync on instances of any value-based class within Java Platform. Java Platform.

A variety of well-known open source projects already have responded to warnings regarding deprecation of Java 9 by removing wrapper constructors from their sources and we can anticipate numerous others to do the same due to the increased importance of “deprecated for removal” warnings.

This feature encapsulates the internal components of the JDK by default, with the exception of for APIs that are critical to internal operations like sun.misc.Unsafe. Code that has been successfully compile using earlier versions that use internally-facing APIs within the JDK will not function in default.

5. Incubator and Preview Features

JEP 338 Vector API (Incubator)

This incubator API offers an initial version of an API for expressing vector computations that are able to compile during runtime according to the most efficient vector hardware instructions for CPUs that are supported and, consequently, provide superior performance over scalar equivalent computations. It lets you take advantages of single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions, which are present on all modern CPUs.

While HotSpot supports auto-vectorizationit’s list of transformable scalar operations is limited and vulnerable to changes to the code. This API will enable developers to create vectors that are portable and effective algorithmic algorithms using Java.

JEP 389 Foreign Linker API (Incubator)

JEP 393 Foreign Memory Access API (3rd Incubator)

The remaining changes aren’t accessible for Java developers (those who use Java to write and run programs) instead, they are only visible to the developers of Java (those who work with OpenJDK).

JEP 347 Enable C++14 Language Features (in JDK source code)

This permits the inclusion of C++14 language features within JDK C++ source code, as well as providing specific guidelines regarding which features are compatible with HotSpot code. In JDK 15, the language features utilized in C++ code in the JDK are limited to C++98/03 standards. It is required to update the minimum accepted version of the various compilers for different platforms.

6-JEP 357 Migration to Mercurial to Git

JEP 369 Migrate to GitHub

These JEPs will migrate the OpenJDK Community’s source code repositories , which were previously hosted in Mercurial (hg) into Git and host the repositories at GitHub to support JDK 11.2 and up. The migration involves updating tooling like jcheck, webrev and defpath tools to Git. Git is able to reduce the size of metadata (around 1/4 of the size) conserving local disk space while decreasing the time required to clone. Modern tooling is more integrated with Git rather than Mercurial. OpenJDK Git repositories are now at https://github.com/openjdk

JEP 386 Alpine Linux Port

JEP 388 Windows/AArch64 Port

Planning and involvement in the ecosystem and ecosystem involvement, integration into ecosystems, Java platform is well-suited to enable modern development and growth on the cloud.

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